2016/06/13

Fonet
A new, simplified phonetic alphabet for English
Jon Roland

CONSONANTS
Fonet lowerFonet upperIPA lowerExampleIn Fonet
monophthongs
bBbbenchbentc
pPpputterpǝtr
dDddiddyd
tTttaketeik
zZzzebrazibrǝ
sSssunsetsǝnset
vVvvoicevoys
fFffindfaynd
gGggivegyv
kKkcatkɋt
jJʒpleasureplejr
cCʃsheci
ð  (00F0)Р (00D0)ðthisðys
þ  (00FE)Þ  (00DE)θthinkþyŋk
hHhhowhau
lLllegleg
mMmmanmɋn
nNnnevernevr
ŋ   (014B)Ŋ   (014A)ŋsingsyŋ
xXxlochlox





affricates
tcTCchecktcek
djDJjudgedjǝdj
tsTStsmeltsmelts
dzDZdzaddsɋdz





extended
ɽ   (027D)Ɽ   (2C64)ʀburrobwɽou
VOWELS
Fonet lowerFonet upperIPA lowerExampleIn Fonet
monophthongs
aAɑfatherfaðr
ɋ   (024B)Ɋ   (024A)æcatkɋt
ǝ   (0259)Ə   (018F)ǝthusðǝs
eEemetmet
iIiseeksik
yYıhithyt
oOɔcallkol
uUublueblu
wWʊputpwt
rRɜturntrn




















diphthongs
eiEIsaysei
ayAYfightfayt
ouOUǝugoatgout
auAUaucloutklaut
yuYUjucutekyut
oyOYɔıcoykoy































The aim with this alphabet was to begin with the 26-character Roman alphabet, add as few characters as possible, here five (ǝ, ð , þ, ŋ, ɋ), drop one (q), and assign four characters (j, c, x, w) to single sounds, to make a total of 30 characters, 10 vowels and 20 consonants. The idea is to minimize the difficulty of transitioning to the alphabet and spelling using it. Where possible, IPA symbols were used, but similar-sounding phonemes distinguished by the IPA are sometimes combined. for example, the IPA distinguishes the sounds of "ə" (schwa) and "ʌ" but in American English they differ only in how they are stressed, and we think it better to minimize the number of symbols and use diacriticals to indicate stress.

For the added characters the UTF-16 codes are shown. The character "ɋ" is actually a variant on "q" but is chosen because it also resembles the familiar variant "ɑ", with the tail distinguishing it, and the letter "q" can be used for it. The letter "j" is used in a way uncommon in English but common in French and some other languages, however, not the way used in the IPA.

The letter "ð" (eth) for the soft "th" sound is ancient and dropped out of use in the 13th century, but it was found convenient to revive it. The letter "θ" U03B8, the Greek letter theta, capital U03F4, is used by the IPA for the hard "th" sound. We prefer the Old English symbol used for this sound, the thorn "þ" (U00FE, capital Þ U00DE), which seems more readable.

The letter "c" is reassigned to represent the "sh" sound, which is perhaps the one change that may cause trouble for new users. This seemed better than adding the character "ʃ".

The letter "x" is given the sound like "ch" in "loch" or "chanukah", which is also a usage in several languages.

The letter "r" is here reclassified as a vowel, although the IPA uses "ɜ", which looks too much like a three "3". Some phoneticists may disagree, but we consider it more a vowel and the transition easier if used as such. However, we need a way to indicate the difference between "krent" and " "current", which can be done by doubling the letter, "rr" for the latter.

The letter "w" is assigned to represent the short "u", which it often does in English. The word "wet" might be represented as "hwet", when the "h" is sounded.

The trilled "r", as in "burro", is actually a consonant, but the IPA uses the letter "ʀ", and this is unsatisfactory.  A better solution might be the tailed "ɽ", "bwɽou", with diacritical marks used to indicate the many variants. Here we do not include it in the basic fonet alfabet, but classify it as an extension.

Some non-English vowels with other sounds can be represented, as they now are, by these symbols with diacritical marks.

It is commonly supported on many computers to key in any of the UTF-16 characters by simultaneously holding down three keys, ctrl-shift-u then typing the four-character code, followed by some other key like the space bar. Most computers also support reassignment of keys on the keyboard using keyboard configuration software, and the defining of one key, such as the right-alt key, as a kind of third shift key, to be held down while pressing one of the other keys, and for upper case, also holding down the shift key.

Examples of transcriptions:
  1. John Donne, 'No man is an island, entire of itself'
    (Original)
Tools:
  1. Phonetizer
  2. PhoTransEdit
  3. Upodn
  4. Phon
  5. transliterate
  6. Phonetic symbols in Unicode
  7. Unicode Character Table — In numerical order
  8. List of Unicode Characters — Wikipedia, better organized
  9. Custom keyboard layout definitions — The xkb tool used in most Linux distributions
  10. Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator (MSKLC) — Create custom layout (but keyboard not displayed properly in Win 8, so have to install Microsoft .Net Framework 2.0 or greater to see it)
  11. KbdEdit — Tool for editing keyboard layouts that works in Windows 8.

2016/05/21

Libertarian judge candidates

After reviewing the list of judicial candidates from Trump, I started to try to put together a list of libertarian lawyers and judges that might be proposed by the Libertarian Party nominee. I can't find a list anywhere, and have tried to put one together from general knowledge.
My first candidates would be

Randy Barnett
Roger Pilon
Janice Rogers Brown
Alex Kozinski
William Baude
Larry Becraft
Stephen Calabresi
Elizabeth Price Foley
Michaek Greve
Kurt Lash
Gary Larson
John O. McGinnis
Robert Natelson
Clark Neily
Michael Rappaport
Roger Roots
Ilya Somin
Lawrence Solum

These are taken from http://constitution.org/cs_peopl.htm , not including some who are social conservative or too old. You might have some more.

2016/05/18

Trump candidates for Supreme Court

Today presumptive Republican nominee Donald Trump released a list of eleven candidates for the U.S. Supreme Court. I list them here with links to more information about them and my brief comments on their fitness.


  1. Steven Colloton -- Iowa. Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit.  Professor  at U. Minnesota School of Law, specializing on constitutional law. Clerked for SC Justice Clarence Thomas.
  2. Allison Eid -- Colorado. Justice, Colorado Supreme Court. Professor U. Colorado Law School, specializing on constitutional law. Clerked for SC Justice Clarence Thomas.
  3. Raymond Gruender -- Missouri. Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. 
  4. Thomas Hardiman --  Pennsylvania. Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. One good decision: Dissented from the court's decision to uphold under the Second Amendment a New Jersey law requiring residents to make a showing of "justifiable need" to receive a license to carry a handgun in public. Bad decision: held that a police officer was immune from suit because there is no clearly established First Amendment right to videotape police officers during traffic stops. The right is a Ninth Amendment right to supervise public servants.
  5. Raymond Kethledge -- Michigan. Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.  Clerked for United States Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy.
  6. Joan Larsen -- Michigan. Associate Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court. Clerked
  7. Thomas Lee - Utah. Associate Justice of the Utah Supreme Court. Pioneer in the application of corpus linguistics to determine ordinary meaning, being the first American judge to do so in an opinion.  Clerked for SC Justice Clarence Thomas.
  8. William Pryor -- Alabama. Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit. Said that Roe v. Wade was the "worst abomination in the history of constitutional law." Some controversial opinions in civil rights cases. Many pro-government decisions.
  9. David Stras -- Minnesota. Associate Justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court. Clerked for SC Justice Clarence Thomas.
  10. Diane Sykes -- Wisconsin. Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, formerly Judge on Wisconsin Supreme court. Strong supporter of Second Amendment.
  11. Don Willett -- Texas. Justice Texas Supreme Court. Drafted the first two executive orders of the Bush presidency. 
Of these the only one I have met personally id Don Willett. He is a bright, personable guy with a good sense of humor, which could be a goo thing on the Supreme Court, where Justice Scalia was famous for his wit. He is also active on Twitter, with some critical tweets on Trump.

2016/05/13

Fetura is the answer to objections to sortition

This post opposing sortition seems to assume direct random selection from the general population, when historical sortition systems have never worked that way. They alternated sortition with a screening stage, a system I call fetura, from the Latin word for breeding, which involves such alternation. The systems of Venice and Florence are examples of this. I have one, as part of a model constitution.
1. Selection of officials is multi-stage, beginning at the most local level (wards), but those selected at random are not limited to selection themselves for the next round.
2. As for policy juries, there would be more than one on any policy, and policies would go through the same kind of fetura, using competing juries that would decide how to present the policy options to one another. Some such juries, which I call inquestries, would function like grand juries to empower prosecutors to propose and defend policies to further juries.
3. Corruption of members would be be inhibited by audits of the members of one jury by another. There would have to be full disclosure of assets and income. That does not prevent payoffs to cronies, but the same process could be used for that. Everything checks and balances everything else.
4. One inhibition to corruption would be that selection is not confined to the selectees of the last random round, so that reputation for integrity would be important. One might call the system reputaracracy (combining Latin and Greek). Everyone would have an incentive to acquire and maintain a good reputation, because not all selection is random. Our modern system of credit scoring is an example of this, although it can be manipulated.
One can describe the system used by political parties in their nominating process as a kind of fetura, although it is vulnerable to dominance by cult leaders.

Venetian system

New regulations for the elections of the doge introduced in 1268 remained in force until the end of the republic in 1797. Their object was to minimize as far as possible the influence of individual great families, and this was effected by a complex elective machinery. Thirty members of the Great Council, chosen by lot, were reduced by lot to nine; the nine chose forty and the forty were reduced by lot to twelve, who chose twenty-five. The twenty-five were reduced by lot to nine and the nine elected forty-five. Then the forty-five were once more reduced by lot to eleven, and the eleven finally chose the forty-one who actually elected the doge. None could be elected but by at least twenty-five votes out of forty-one, nine votes out of eleven or twelve, or seven votes out of nine electors.

Florentine system

Florence was governed by a council called the signoria, which consisted of nine men. The head of the signoria was the gonfaloniere, who was chosen every two months in a lottery, as was his signoria. To be eligible, one had to have sound finances, no arrears or bankruptcies, he had to be older than thirty, had to be a member of Florence’s seven main guilds (merchant traders, bankers, two clothe guilds, and judges). The roster of names in the lottery were replaced every five years.
The main organs of government were known as the the maggiori. They were: the twelve good men, the standard bearers of the gonfaloniere, and the signoria. The first two debated and ratified proposed legislation, but could not introduce it. To hold an elective office, one had to be of a family that had previously held office.

Genoese System

The Republic of Genoa, a communal republic and a state of the Holy Roman Empire, from 1339 until the state's extinction in 1797. Originally elected for life, after 1528 the Doges were elected for terms of two years.[1] In actuality, the Republic (or Dogate) was an oligarchy ruled by a small group of merchant families, from whom the doges were selected.

The first doge ("duke") of Genoa, Simone Boccanegra, whose name is kept alive by Verdi's opera, was appointed by public acclaim in 1339. Initially the Doge of Genoa was elected without restriction and by popular suffrage, holding office for life in the so-called "perpetual dogate"; but after the reform effected by Andrea Doria in 1528 the term of his office was reduced to two years. At the same time plebeians were declared ineligible, and the appointment of the doge was entrusted to the members of the great council, the Gran Consiglio, who employed for this purpose a political system almost as complex as that of the later Venetians.

Of all the "perpetual" doges of Genoa who ruled for their lifetime, only one ruled for more than eight years. Many resigned or were driven out before taking office. Some failed to complete a single day in power. Between 1339 and 1528, only four doges were legally elected. Genoa did not trust its doges; the ruling caste of Genoa tied them to executive committees, kept them on a small budget, and kept them apart from the communal revenues held at the "Casa di San Giorgio". Not surprisingly, the doges of Genoa have been less renowned than the doges of Venice.

Still, the position of doge stood at the head of state patronage, and the city's inner group of leading merchant families vied with each other to place their man in the position. Rival elections were known to take place within the building. In 1389, a frustrated candidate made a surprise return from enforced exile accompanied by 7,000 supporters, and after dining amicably with the incumbent, politely but firmly ejected him, thanking him for serving so ably as his deputy during his own "unavoidable absence" from Genoa.

For generations two powerful families in Genoa all but monopolized the dogate: the Adorno, supporters of imperial power in the Middle Ages, and the Campofregoso or Fregoso, supporters of papal power. Tomaso di Campofregoso became doge three times: in 1415, 1421 and 1437. In 1461, Paolo Fregoso, archbishop of Genoa, enticed the current doge to his own palace, held him hostage and offered him the choice of retiring from the post or being hanged. When Fregoso was in due course himself toppled, he fled to the harbor, commandeered four galleys and launched himself on a whole new career as a pirate. While the doge's palace in Venice accumulated great furnishings and works of art over the years, in Genoa, each doge was expected to arrive with his own furnishings and, when he left, to strip the palace to its bare walls.

Genoa's power peaked early, and it was eclipsed by Venice. In the 16th century the republic enjoyed a dramatic revival under the leadership of the admiral, statesman and patron of the arts Andrea Doria who ruled the state as a virtual dictator but never actually became doge. It was through the Spanish empire in the New World that Genoa became rich again. Doria served the Spanish Habsburgs as admiral-in-chief, and the bankers of Genoa handled Spain's financial business, which vastly enriched Genoa's banking oligarchy.

The Napoleonic Wars put an end to the office of doge at Genoa. In 1797, when Napoleon Bonaparte incorporated Genoa into the newly organized Ligurian Republic, French soldiers and the city's mob ransacked the doge's palace.



“Sortition” should not be conceived as only a cramped. one step random procedure. Yes, the prisoner’s dilemma applies, or at least the iterated prisoner’s dilemma, discussed by Rappoport in The Evolution of Cooperation.

A better model is provided by genetic (or evolutionary) algorithms, in which random steps (such as reconfiguration) alternate with a fitness screening. That is why I use the term fetura, which is another name for the process.

Another key concept is self-organizing systems (part of chaos theory). Society is a self-organizing system composed of other self-organizing systems, which in turn are composed of other self-organizing systems, and so forth.

The argument we should be making is not over just the random step, but over the entire system in which it is just one step of many. A well-designed system is composed of many self-organizing systems composed of other self-organizing systems in which fetura is a key element.

What we are discussing is how to design a subset of society that serves society as well as society could if it were reduced to a single wise decider, who is himself composed of other systems. In other words a microcosm of society that somehow represents society, and makes decisions for the best interests of society.


A well-designed system cultivates virtue among its decisionmakers, which can be assessed by other decisionmakers. This relates to one of the three types of morality: deontological (duty based), consequentialist, and aretaic (virtue-oriented). The last depends on reputation and admirable qualities. “We become what we admire.” But admirable qualities are not just a matter of taste, because they have consequences.

So a well-designed system cultivates good reputations and the perception of such.

2016/05/08

Fate of technologically obsolete humans

Trump has proposed several policies he doesn't understand well. The first is to create enough "good-paying jobs for everyone now unemployed or underemployed. That's 92 million jobs paying more than $50,000 a year. That isn't going to happen, no matter what anyone might try  to do. The good-paying jobs of the post WW II period were the result of a unique situation of the U.S. during that period, when capital invested in the U.S. because that was the safest place to do it. That is no longer our situation.

Those jobs also depended on an industrial base the greatest the world had ever seen, supported by resources the U.S. was uniquely positioned to acquire. That is also no longer the situation.

Yes, we can create some good-paying jobs, but not 92 million of them, even it we tore down every highway and bridge and rebuilt them all. Much of that work is now done by machines. The high-paying jobs in the tech companies are few and require special training most underemployed persons today do not have the talent to do. Even the high-paying tech jobs are increasingly being done by machines.

The good news is all that off-shored work is coming back. The bad news is that when it does it won't be creating high-paying jobs. The work will be done by machines. Start your own personal factory in your garage, using 3-D additive tools? Some will be able to do that, but most will not be able to.

The other flawed Trump proposal is to negotiate a partial payoff of creditors for our national debt. He seems to think there aren't very many of them, as though it was a bankruptcy negotiation. Contrary to popular misconception, it not mostly a few countries. It is millions of individual bondholders, most of them American, either directly or though their investment funds. If they were paid off 20 cents on the dollar they would be wiped out. And so would the world financial system.

There would be a domino effect, just as there was when the International monetary system collapsed in 1931, which caused the Great Depression. The process began with the collapse of one bank in Austria, Creditanstalt. That spread to a loss of confidence in the entire international monetary system, which ultimately depended on a gentleman's agreement among major banks. No one would accept anyone else's currency at face value, which dropped to zero for some countries (Weimar Germany), and near-zero for others, including the U.S., or borrow or loan money.

Most international commerce depends on debt. If producers and distributors can't finance their operations, those operations cease.

Anything that shakes confidence in the international monetary system, even off-hand remarks, will likely trigger another Great Depression, but far worse. Never before in history has the system been more fragile, and all the measures that have been tried to manage it are no longer available.

The most likely mid-term scenario is the paying of a "basic income" to everyone, to support consumption, and turn production and distribution over to machines. It would have to be paid for by nationalizing dividends and capital gains. But from the standpoint of the still competitive machines, that would be a cost that they would compete to reduce, resulting in the payments becoming worthless. Remaining consumption, as well as production and distribution, would be done by machines, not by humans, who would descend to the status of just another form of wildlife, which the machines would not be motivated to serve or protect. No "war" with the machines. Just extinction by (not so) benign neglect.

Links:


  1. How Great Depression started. http://www.federalreservehistory.org/Events/DetailView/21

2016/05/07

Immunitates

Immunitates
Bill of Immunities

The following is a nonexhaustive list of immunities of individuals and groups from official action of all kinds and at all levels of government anywhere, and restrictions on government powers.

  1. Due process and efficient remediation
    1. General
      1. Not to be denied due notice of time, place, manner, parties, and subject of any proceeding with sufficient time to respond.
      2. Not to be denied fair hearing and decision on the legal merits, with redress for just grievances, including damages, property, or injunctive or declaratory relief.
      3. Not to have just remedies made inaccessible or excessively difficult or costly.
      4. Not to be denied mandated testimony of witnesses.
      5. Not to be denied unimpeded access to courts, court filing, and inquestries, subject only to routine scheduling.
      6. Not to be denied direct presentation of complaints to an inquestry without the presence of any other government actor except with the consent of the inquestry.
      7. Not to be denied standing to privately prosecute a public right without having been injured or expecting personal injury.
      8. Not to be subject to retaliation.
      9. Not to have admitted any plea or testimony induced by a plea agreement.
      10. Not to have any real property or chattel taken or forfeited without civil or criminal judgment in a trial, with possession presumed to establish title unless proved otherwise.
      11. Not to have the exercise of any immunity taxed, disabled, or restricted by statute or other rule except to allocate a scarce resource among competing claimants, unless one is a minor, which by default shall be any individual under the age of 18 unless the disabilities of minority are extended or reduced by court order.
      12. Not to have the exercise of any right, privilege, or immunity disabled or restricted without s court order following a jury trial.
    2. Criminal trials:
      1. Not to be denied indictment by twelve members of a randomly selected inquestry of 23 who elect their foreperson, upon a finding that the court has jurisdiction and that there is sufficient evidence for a trial, except for persons subject to military or militia discipline, or foreign praedones.
  2. Not to be denied service as prosecutor upon receipt of an indictment by an inquestry, subject only to consolidation by the inquestry if more than one person seeks to prosecute the same offense.
  3. Not to be denied trial by a randomly selected jury of twelve sworn to uphold applicable constitutions in criminal cases for which the penalty is more than 90 days.
      1. Not to have imposed excessive bail when there is little flight risk.
  4. Not to have imposed excessive fines imposed.
      1. Not to have cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  5. Not to be denied speedy and public trial before an impartial jury of the state and district previously defined by law, wherein the offense shall have been committed, and to have the location of commitment be deemed where there was concurrence of mens rea and actus reus.
      1. Not to be twice prosecuted for the same offense or same facts under the same or different jurisdictions.
      2. To be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense, but not to have counsel or an attorney imposed on him without his consent.
      3. Not to be compelled to be a witness against himself.
      4. Not to be disabled in the exercise, or deprived, of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, by unanimous verdict of a jury of twelve.
      5. Not to be impeded in the presentation of all evidence by the defendant, without being subject to a motion in limine.
      6. Not to be impeded in the presentation of all legal argument to the jury, up to the final instructions to the jury, except for argument on a motion in limine that cannot be made without disclosing evidence properly excluded.
      7. Not to be impeded in the presentation of all pleadings, alternative instructions, and certified copies of applicable laws and constitutions, to the jury.
      8. Not to have a sentence that does not separately disable the exercise of the immunity, and order deprivation of it, within the scope of that disablement.
    1. Civil trials:
      1. Trial by a randomly selected jury of twelve sworn to uphold applicable constitutions and laws in which the amount at issue, including costs, exceeds the equivalent of at least 15.46875 troy ounces of pure silver.
    2. Appeals
      1. Not to be impeded in an appeal from a jury verdict on a writ of error or habeas corpus, according to established rules of judicial procedure in the polity as of its founding, unless the Constitution is amended to provide otherwise.
  6. Nonauthority
    1. Nonauthority shall be presumed for any claim to authority, to be strictly proved by an unbroken logical chain of derivation from a constitution or constitutional law.
    2. Not to have any government actor exercise a power not delegated, regardless of whether one may be personally injured by such exercise.
    3. Not to have government actors exercise powers on the pretext of being "necessary and proper" when they are not incidental to perform his official duties or to get a desired result beyond such duties.
    4. To have delegated powers construed as narrowly, and rights, privileges, or immunities construed as broadly, as the language of the Constitution as meant and understood when ratified permits.
    5. To have priority docketing of all prerogative writs filed by a any person as demandant in the name of the people with a court of competent jurisdiction and served on the respondant, within three sederunt days, unless the respondant requires more, but not more than 20 calendar days, including but not limited to, demurral, quo warranto, habeas corpus, procedendo, mandamus, prohibito, certiorari, and scire facias, and to have default judgment even if no proof is presented or a hearing is not held.
    6. Not have communications, including speech, press, and education, punished or impeded, except such as instigate or direct a felony, misdemeanor, high crime, tort, piracy, or treason.
    7. Not to impede peaceful assembly and exercise of rights in concert with others.
  7. Not to impede assembly as militia for organizing, training, and responding to threats to public safety, subject only to direction by state militia officers during a call-up.
    1. Not to restrict keeping and bearing of weapons, equipment, and supplies commonly used by military forces, or suitable for militia, subject only to court order of disablement for being a threat to oneself or others, or to the lawful orders of militia officers during a call-up.
    2. Not to impede or punish petition for redress of grievances.
  8. Not to impede or punish devotion or practice of religion, or have preferential support of such by public funds, that does not instigate or direct a felony, misdemeanor, or tort.
    1. Not to have government actors intrude into one's real property, body, or use of one's personal property, for search, seizure, or for any other reason, without consent, a declared state of war or emergency threat to public, safety, a warrant supported by an affidavit of probable cause, and just compensation for any losses incurred, for each incident.
  9. Supervision of government actors
  10. Not to impede or punish access to observation and recordation of any government proceeding except trial and inquestry deliberations or their equivalent, or deliberations on matters of security requiring secrecy.
  11. Not to impede or punish receipt of records of all proceedings, and accounting for all receipts, loans, debts, and expenditures, and reporting thereof, for eventual examination prior to an election in which the issues may be reviewed.
    1. Not to be denied accurate recording, counting, and reporting of all votes cast by eligible voters in any public election with protection from disclosure of how each voted.
  12. Not to be denied access to all information about oneself, and either copies at cost of all documentation or to make one's own copies using one's own equipment.
  13. Not to be denied effective low-cost remedies for getting information about oneself corrected, and use of such information restricted to that for which there is consent by oneself.
  14. Not to be subject to illogical or impossible demands, or meddling without a clear, present, and compelling public need
  15. Not to impede or punish association and contract to do things not unlawful, including practice of a profession or occupation, marriage, procreation, and acceptance or denial of medical prevention or treatment, except prevention of contagious diseases.
  16. Not to impede or punish formation, conduct, and revision or dissolution of corporations, partnerships, and other trusts, in which settlor, trustee, and beneficiary are distinct persons who may not be impeded or penalized from directly appearing in any court in such capacities.
    1. Not to have some accorded special privileges or protections that favor them over the rest of the people, in ways not essential to the performance of public duties.
  17. Not to impede or punish travel by a citizen within, to, and from the polity and any subdivision, territory or locality of the polity of which it is a part.
    1. Not to be removed from the location of one's birth or lawful residence, or impeded from returning thereto.
    2. Not to be enslaved or subjected to peonage except as punishment for a crime, but excepting militia, jury, witness, and other public duty.
    3. Not to be impeded or punished for voting if one is a citizen and resident on grounds of race, color, creed, previous servitude, gender, age 18 or above, or failure to pay a tax.
  18. Not to be denied custody and care of close relatives who are non sui juris.
    1. Not to be neglected or abused while in custody.
    2. Not to be denied any right, privilege, or immunity for failure to have or present a name or other form of identification.
    3. Not to be deported without proof that one has not been natural born or naturalized as a citizen, unless one is born to a person not subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, such as a foreign diplomat or an invader.
    4. Not to be subject to a penalty for not doing something, such as not paying a tax, if government agents refuse to allow it to be done, such as not accepting payment of a tax.
    5. Not to be subject to a penalty or tax for failure to take some action one has no public duty to do.
    6. Not to be denied relief from some government action for lack of an appropriation to process the application for relief, or having an official to receive the application, and to fail to recognize the demand for such relief as being granted by default.
    7. Not to be required to procreate or to refrain from procreating.
    8. Not to have imposed upon one any unwanted belief or expression of devotion or to be pressured into conformity with such.
    9. Not be subject to oppressive surveillance of acts committed in a public space.
  19. Immunities do not include entitlements to a sufficient amount of a scarce resource.

  1. The foregoing list is not exhaustive, and further rights, privileges, and immunities are to be found in the historical record. The rule of expressio unius est exclusio alterius shall not be applied.

Amendment

Each twenty years following adoption of this Bill, upon petition by at least two percent of the general population of the polities that have adopted it as part of their constitutions, there shall be convened a convention, or sanhedrin, of twenty-three individuals, the final selection of which shall be by sortition of the candidates elected in the previous stage, with each previous stage selecting candidates in turn by alternating election and sortition, beginning with the lowest level polity in the system. The convention shall hold public hearings on proposed amendments, and propose them to a public referendum in which all citizens eligible to vote in the elections of their lowest polity may vote, to ratify additional items by a majority vote, modified items by a two-thirds vote, and deleted items by a four-fifths vote.

2016/04/24

Revised model for federal constitution

Constitution
of the Band Republic

1. Preamble. The purposes of this Constitution include the following:
1.1 To unite the peoples of the Band Republic into a permanent Union;
1.2 To establish justice;
1.3 To ensure domestic tranquility;
1.4 To provide for the common defense;
1.5 To promote the common welfare;
1.6 To secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and to our posterity.
For these purposes we the people hereby do ordain and establish this Constitution, providing that any official action inconsistent with them is void.
2. Names. The name of the Nation shall be the Band Republic, or the Union. If there are other nations with a similar name the Diet may adopt a qualifying phrase to distinguish this one from the others.
3. Bill of Immunities. The Bill of Immunities established as of the ratification of this Constitution shall restrict powers of government at all levels. Immunities do not include entitlements to a sufficient amount of a scarce resource. Further amendments to the Bill must be ratified by a two-thirds vote of both houses of the Diet to take effect in the Union.
3. Jurisdictions. The three kinds of jurisdiction shall be personal, or personam, subject matter, or subjectam, and territorial, or locum, and all three must be proved in any trial.
3.1 The principal political subdivision of the Union is the land, which may also be called a state, to distinguish it as a member of the Union, which has voting representation in the houses, or camera, of the legislature, or Diet. With the exception of certain powers delegated to the Diet to legislate for persons on state territory, states shall have exclusive dominion over their own land and peoples, including the power of eminent domain. The territory that combines states and dominions shall be called the Commonwealth.
3.2 Territories not organized into states, over which the Diet has exclusive legislative jurisdiction, without voting representation in the Diet, shall be called dominions.
3.2.1 The Diet may establish one dominion with an area not to exceed 256 square kiloyards to serve at the Capital of the Union.
3.3 The government of each state or subdivision thereof, shall have a written constitution, and shall be organized into legislative, executive, and judicial branches, which may be further divided into houses or departments. Each land shall have a diet of two camera, a landrat and a landtag.
3.4 The Diet of each state, according to its Constitution, may further subdivide itself into legislative, executive, judicial, administrative, and militia districts. The top level of such subdivision shall be called a county, and the bottom level a ward, which shall contain about 3000 citizens.
3.5 Lands controlled by the Band but not full member states or dominions, shall be called protectorates, with all the attributes of an independent nation except for control of defense and foreign relations.
3.6 Lands bound to the Band by treaties of alliance shall be called allies.
3.7 Lands held by conquest or liberation shall be called occupates, which shall be regarded as dominions while occupied.
3.8 Territories not suited for occupation or settlement, such as the high seas, or which are in a lawless state where no government operates, shall be called nonstates, and are subject to the law of nations.
4. Person, denizen, citizen, elector, and militia.
4.1 A person is a legal role, which may be played by any entity that can have rights, powers, and duties that it can assert in a court of law.
4.2 A denizen is an individual with immunity from being denied or impeded from remaining at one’s domicile, and from returning to it after a sojourn elsewhere.
4.3 A citizen is a denizen who may, if otherwise qualified, have the privilege to vote and hold office, including the office of juror or elector.
4.3.1 A natural born citizen is one born on the soil of a state or dominion.
4.3.2 A naturalized citizen is one made a citizen by a statute.
4.4 An elector is a citizen of at least eighteen years of age who was born in or has been a resident of the election jurisdiction for at least six months, and is not presently incarcerated in a penal institution for conviction of a crime.
4.5 Militia is defense activity by citizens or legal residents, who are to be regarded as temporary citizens with limited privileges. It is the duty associated with the social contract that creates society; all citizens or legal residents fit for militia duty shall be subject to call-up, organization, and training, unless they hold offices that take priority over militia duties, or are disabled by due process of law. Jury duty shall be regarded as a form of militia duty. Those active in militia may not be kept in a called up status beyond the duration of an emergency.
4.6 A resident of a polity is an adult individual who is physically present om the soil of a polity, and who is thereby subject to the constitutional laws thereof.
4.7 All persons while they are on the national soil of the Union, except for duly certified foreign diplomats, are subject to this Constitution and constitutional laws, and shall be deemed as having taken a oath or affirmation to "Preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the Union against all enemies, foreign or domestic".
4.8 A trust settlor, trustee, beneficiary, and a trust itself shall each be deemed as distinct persons in any court of law of the Union and any State, the trust represented therein by the trustee personally, but liability for debts shall be limited ti the assets of the trust. The Union, and corporations, shall be deemed a kind of trust.
5. Fetura is the default method of selecting public officials, unless a constitution should provide otherwise, consisting of alternating rounds of random selection (sortition) and fitness screening or election, each of which reduces the size of the candidate pool, until the final selection of the officials. The final round may be either sortition or election or fitness screening. The purpose is to dispel the undue influence of monied interests and the entrenchment of officials in their offices.
6 Structure. Government shall be divided into three branches.
6.1 All legislative power to which national individuals are subject, with the exception of the executive veto, shall be vested in a Diet, which shall be divided into two camera or chambers, a Bandrat and a Bandtag. They shall conduct business according to rules of procedure they shall adopt by a vote of two-thirds of each body, which shall include power to select their presidents and other officials.
6.1.1 Such legislative power, may not be subdelegated to staff, administrators, magistrates, or courts, but
6.1.2 Executive officials may issue directives or regulations to government employees or contractors under their supervision, which directives or regulations shall be subject to review by the Diet or the courts, but such directives or regulations shall not apply to national individuals outside of government.
6.2 The Diet structure.
6.2.1 The Bandrat shall consist of two rators representing each Land, each of which shall cast one vote.
6.2.2 The Bandtag shall consist initially of 200 tagtors, representing districts within each Land, divided in proportion to the numbers of electors in each Land, each of which shall cast a number of votes equal to the number of votes the tagtor received in the most recent election. The number of tagtors shall be increased by one for each Land, beyond 200, that is admitted into the Union.
6.3 Executive power shall be vested in an Executive Branch, which shall be headed by three offices, which may be held by the same individual:
6.3.1 Leiter. The chief spokesman for the government, to the people and to foreign nations.
6.3.2 Executor. The enforcer of lawful acts of the Diet and courts of the Judicial Branch.
6.3.3 Protector. The Commander-in-Chief of military and police forces at the Union level.
6.4 Judicial power shall be vested in a Judicial Branch, which shall consist of one Supreme Court, and such subordinate courts as the Diet shall create, and define the jurisdictions of each. But there must always be a court of competent jurisdiction to decide any judicial issue that is conveniently located to the parties.
6.4.1 All richters or judges shall be selected by fetura into a single pool of richters, in which they shall serve for life, subject to good behavior, from which pool richters shall be selected by fetura to serve on each court for terms set by the Diet, except for two years in the Supreme Court, and selected by fetura to hear particular cases.
6.4.2 Judicial officers shall consist of all persons sworn to duty in a court of the United States or subdivisions thereof, including but not limited to court presidents, judges, magistrates, clerks, bailiffs, attorneys, witnesses, trial jurors, or recorders.
6..4.3 Subsequently appointed presidents, judges, magistrates, and clerks shall not be appointed permanently to a particular court, but periodically reassigned to courts and cases by sortition, with presidents or judges reassigned at random to courts each year, and at random to cases, other officials other than jurors assigned to courts for up to four years, and trial jurors selected at random to each case.
6.4.3 The Supreme Court shall have ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all cases, and may hear and decide any case in which they can provide property, injunctive, or declarative relief.
6.4.2.1 The Supreme Court shall consist of 28 richters, selected by fetura from the judicial pool to serve for a term of two years.
6.4.2.2 Each case shall initially receive oyer and terminer from a panel of three richters selected at random from the members of the Supreme Court.
6.4.2.3 Each case decided by a three-richter panel may be appealed to a panel of nine richters, selected at random from members of the Supreme Court, if three of the nine agree to hear it.
6.4.2.4 Each case decided by a nine-richter panel may be appealed to an en banc panel of twenty-seven of the members of the Supreme Court, selected at random from members of the Supreme Court, if six of the 28 agree to hear it.
6.4.3 In any multi-richter panel, Union or state, the decision in any case in which government shall be a party, must be unanimous to sustain the exercise of power of that government against the claim that government does not lawfully have that power.
6.4.4 The Supreme Court shall establish rules of procedure for all Union courts, at any jurisdiction or level, although subordinate courts may establish their own supplementary rules of procedure.
6.4.5 Inquestry. An inquestry shall consist of 23 citizens, with some spares, read in the law, selected at random from adult citizens of its jurisdiction, headed by a foreperson elected by its members, with power to hear any complaint from any person about the actions or conduct of any person or agency and to present its findings to the public or to appropriate agencies. Such findings may include an indictment or removal of official immunity, appointment of a prosecutor of the complaint, civil or criminal, in a court designated by it, and no individual shall be prosecuted for a crime without an indictment or presentment of an inquestry.
6.4.6 Jury. A trial jury shall consist of 12 citizens, with some spares, selected at random from all adult citizens in its jurisdiction, headed by a foreperson elected by its members, with the power to subpoena witnesses and testimony, hear all evidence, argument and pleadings, and to decide the complaint, civil or criminal, but it must be unanimous to find guilt in a criminal case, and failure to agree on conviction shall be deemed acquittal. All crimes for which the penalty shall be death or more than six months incarceration shall be tried by jury, even if the defendant does plead guilty.
7 Selection Procedures
7.1 Census. Within ten years after adoption of this Constitution, and on each tenth year thereafter, there shall be conducted a census of all inhabitants of the Union, to identify the name and count every denizen and citizen, elector and those likely to reach age for voting, physical condition of each, fitness for militia, including likely future fitness for those expected to reach militia age.
7.1.1 Within one year after the report of the recent census, the boundaries of wards shall be drawn or redrawn to contain approximately 3000 inhabitants, but not less than 2500 nor more than 4000, unless the state shall not contain that number. The lengths of ward boundaries shall be minimized, they shall be contiguous and simply connected with no holes. They shall not cross the boundaries of counties. All parts of a county must be placed in a ward.
7.1.2 For the first selection of officials that depend on census numbers, before a formal census can be conducted, an informal census shall be conducted by calling assemblies in each major town, counting the numbers of those who attend, and adding the counts to the estimated total.
7.2 Selection of the Bandtag.
7.2.1 Within a year after each census and prior to the next selection the number of tagtors which a land or state may select shall be calculated by the number of electors in the state, multiplied by the number of members of the Bandtag, divided by the number of electors in the Union, rounded up to the nearest whole number.
7.2.2 The state or land is to be divided into a number of Bandtag districts equal to the number of members the state is entitled to send to the Bandtag. The districts shall be composed of collections of wards that are equal in electoral population to within a margin of error of 20 percent, with a minimal outer boundary, contiguous, and simply connected. It should be attempted to avoid splitting countries among districts.
7.2.3 Each ward shall elect one candidate for a pool of candidates in its district, not necessarily a resident of the ward. Five of those candidates shall then be selected by lot to be the nominees for tagtor from that district. The electors shall then cast votes for one of those nominees, or for any other qualified person. The candidate who receives the most votes shall be the tagtor for that district, but in all proceedings of the Bandtag shall cast a number of votes equal to the number of votes that candidate received.
7.2.4 No person shall serve as tagtor who is not a citizen of the Commonwealth and has not attained the age of twenty-five years, or been a resident of his district for at least one year.
7 2 5 If a vacancy occurs in any position, that vacancy shall be filled by the next person in the line of designated successors, and if that line is exhausted, writs of election to fill such vacancy shall be issued by the executive authority of the state.
7.3 Selection of the Bandrat
7.3.1 Selection shall be at intervals of six years.
7.3.2 Each ward shall elect one candidate for a pool of candidates in its district, not necessarily a resident of the ward or district. Five of those candidates shall then be selected by lot to be the nominees for rator for the state. The electors shall then cast votes for one of those nominees, or for any other qualified person. The candidate who receives the most votes shall be the rator for that state, but in all proceedings of the Bandsrat shall cast one vote.
7.3.4 No person shall serve as rator who is not a citizen of the Commonwealth and has not attained the age of thirty years, and been a resident of the Commonwealth for a total of least five years.
7 3.5 If a vacancy occurs in any position, that vacancy shall be filled by the next person in the line of designated successors, and if that line is exhausted, writs of election to fill such vacancy shall be issued by the executive authority of the state.
7.3.6 The initial commissioners of election shall draw by lot whether each each rator shall initially serve for two years, four, or a full six. If initially two or four years then subsequent rators in that position shall serve for six years.
7.4 Selection of the Judiciary
7.4.1 Term of office shall be for life, subject to good behavior or fitness to serve.
7.3.2 Each ward shall elect one candidate for a pool of candidates for richter in its district, not necessarily a resident of the ward or district. Five of those candidates shall then be elected by by the nominees for richter for the district. Vacancies in the Union judicial pool shall then be drawn by lot from those elected candidates.
7.3.3 Each position on each court shall be drawn by lot from the Union judicial pool, and when sitting as sub banc panels, shall be assigned by lot to particular cases.
7.3.4 No person shall serve as richter who is not a citizen of the Commonwealth and has not attained the age of forty-five years.
7.5 Selection of executive officials
7.5.1 The Leiter, Executor, and Protector shall each serve for a term of four years, but may be re-elected by a popular vote for an additional second term once. Selection shall be made at four-year intervals on a date set by the Diet. A single individual may serve as any two or all three of these offices.
7.5.2 Each ward shall elect one candidate for a pool of candidates for leiter, executor, or protector in its district, not necessarily a resident of the ward or district. Five of those candidates shall then be elected by by the nominees for those positions for the district. A number of executive electors, equal to the number of tagtors for the state, for each position shall be selected by lot from among those five, and each shall cast a ballot for one candidate for each position within its group. The candidate receiving a majority of the votes shall be declared selected, but if no one receives a majority then the executive electors shall vote again until a majority is attained, but the Diet shall designate the dates and places where all these selections are to be performed.
7.5.3 No person shall serve as Leiter, Executor, or Protector who is not a citizen of the Commonwealth from birth, either by being natural born to the soil or made a citizen at birth by a naturalization statute, and has not attained the age of thirty-five years.
7.5.4 Each executive official shall designate one or more successors who shall assume his role if he should become unable to perform it, as certified by an inquestry convened fro the purpose.
7.5.3 Each executive official shall receive a compensation for his services, defined by the Diet and paid from the treasury, which shall not be increased or diminished during his term in office.
7.5.4 Each executive official shall, before he takes office, take an oath or affirmation that he will preserve, protect, and defend this Constitution, and faithfully execute the constitutional laws and lawful duties of the office he about to assume.
7.6 Qualifying candidates The Diet shall appoint 23 richters selected at random to be a richterate of selections, who shall determine from proof of qualification offered by each candidate that he is qualified to serve, or will be before assuming office. Any person may challenge the qualification of any candidate through a writ of quo warranto, but any or all such challenges may be consolidated into a single case.
7.7 The use of the masculine pronoun shall be deemed to include the feminine throughout this Constitution.
8. Removal procedures
8.1 Causes for which an official may be removed:
8.1.1 Treason.
8.1.2 Bribery
8.1.3 Dereliction of duty.
8.1.4 Commission of a crime.
8.1.5 Abuse of discretion.
8.1.6 Conduct unbecoming to the office held.
8.1.7 Willful violation of any provision of this Constitution, unless it may be warranted by an emergency.
8.1.8 Failure to obey a lawful order.
8.1.9 Incompetence.
8.2 Immunities of officials.
8.2.1 Officials shall not be subject to arrest or detention unless it is a felony or a life is in danger, during duty periods, such as members of the Diet while either house is in session.
8.3 If an official is deemed by a randomly inquestry unable to perform the duties of his office, and there is no designated successor available to take his role, the selection procedure for that office shall be repeated until a lawful candidate is selected.
8.4 Prior to selection a candidate shall designate at least one, and no more than five, successors to his office if he should become unable to perform the duties of his office, who shall take his place in the order of their succession.
8.5 Either house of the Diet shall have power to discipline or remove any of its members for any of the causes for removal listed above.They may enforce attendance at sessions.
8.6 Any richter may be removed by a randomly selected inquestry of members of the judiciary.
8.3 Impeachment and removal of officials
8.3.1 Any official may be initially impeached by an inquestry of impeachment selected from across the Union, but such impeachment shall be subject to review by the Bandtag, failing which the impeachment shall stand.
8.3.2 Any official may be tried by a court of removal, with a jury selected from across the Union, but such trial is subject to review by the Bandrat. If not rejected by the Bandrat, the court shall have the power to remove him from his office, disqualify him holding of any other office or position of benefit, but without power to otherwise impose penalties, which may be done by a trial held by or under the supervision of the Supreme Court, with prosecution, judgment, or punishment, according to law of the Union or any subdivision thereof.
8.4 Legislative procedure
8.4.1 Joint resolutions. Statutes and other acts of the Diet that expend public resources or are intended to have a structural or coercive effect on individuals or organizations, governmental or nongovernmental.
8.4.1.1 A bill may be introduced in either house of the Diet, where it shall be assigned a title and a number, and scheduled for debate;
8.4.1.2 Upon conclusion of debate, it shall be submitted to a vote by the members of the house;
8.4.1.3 If approved by the house, it shall be submitted to the other house for debate and a vote, during which it may be amended;
8.4.1.4 If approved with amendment, it shall be committed to a reconciliation committee composed of members of both houses who voted for it, for debate on amendments needed to propose a single compromise bill, which shall be submitted to both houses for further debate and perhaps approval;
8..4.1.5 If a single bill is passed by both houses, it is then submitted to the Leiter for signature, who may, if it concerns revenues, debts, spending, money, or assets of the Union, submit it to the Executor for his signature, or if it concerns defense or foreign relations, submit it to the Protector for his signature. Each executive, if he does not consent to the entire bill as submitted, shall return the bill to the Diet with his objections and any proposed deletions, but a bill of more than 10,000 words shall extend the time for signatures by ten days for each increment of 10,000 words;
8.4.1.5 If each house concurs with the deletions, it may do so by enacting a simple resolution of each house without objections to some of the deletions;
8.4.1.6 If it does not concur, the bill may be submitted, perhaps with amendments, to the other house like any other bill, and may convene the reconciliation committee to arrive at a common version, which may then be resubmitted to the executive officials who made objections for their signature or signatures. If one or the other refuses to sign, the bill fails, unless the Diet shall re-pass it by a vote of two-thirds of each house, in which case it shall be deemed passed;
8.4.1.7 If either executive shall not sign the bill within ten days while the Diet is in session, the bill fails, otherwise it is deemed passed.
8.4.1.8 The yays and nays and the name of each member casting them shall be recorded and reported.
8.4.2 Concurrent resolutions. Acts which do not require the signatures of executives, such as amendments to this Constitution, treaties, or rules of procedure of the Diet.
8.4.3 Simple resolutions. Acts which do not require the concurrence of the other house, such as motions to adjourn, amend the rules of that house, enforce discipline of its members, or prepare or report the journal of the house.
9. Official duties.
9.1 Union and State Diets.
9.1.1 The diet of each state shall prescribe uniform times, places, and manner for the selection of its representatives to the Union Diet, and shall supervise such selections, but the Union Diet may at any time enact replacements or alterations to such state acts, and appoint its own supervisors.
9.1.2 The chief protector of each state, county, or ward, or his designee shall be commander of militia in that jurisdiction; but should he neglect such duty the militia members of that jurisdiction shall elect its own commander.
9.1.3 Militia of each sate shall be kept in a state of readiness in leadership, training, planning, equipment, and supplies, sufficient to prevail over the regular military that may be assigned to that area.
9.1.4 Each house of the diet shall adopt rules of procedure by a two-thirds vote of each house, and publish same:
9.1.4.1 Choose a commencement date for each year;
9.1.4.2 Compel the attendance of absent members in such manner as the house shall prescribe; and discipline misbehaving members, which may include fines or suspensions, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expulsion of them;
9.1.4.3 Keep a complete and accurate verbatim journal of its proceedings, and report such journal from time to time but at least once each year, except for those items that in its judgment may may require secrecy for security, for a period not to exceed ten years;
9.1.4.4 Record and report the yeas and nays of all votes, if demanded by at least one-fifth of the members;
9.1.4.5 Report annual and project expenditures and obligations incurred by its government;
9.1.4.6 Each house shall judge the elections, returns, and qualifications of its members;
9.1.4.7 A majority of the members each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a lesser number may adjourn from day to day;
9.1.4.8 No member of the diet shall be appointed to any other office, legislative, executive, or judicial, while serving, or to any office the compensation for which was increased by the diet during his term in that body; nor shall any officer of one branch of government be selected for or serve in a different branch concurrently;
9.1.4.9 The Union shall guarantee to any state or dominion compliance with its constitution or organic law.
9.1.4.9 The Union shall defend every state or dominion from invasion, or at the request of the state or dominion diet or executive, against domestic violence.
9.2 Union Diet
9.2.1 Neither house may adjourn for more than three days, or to a place other than their regular place of sitting, without the consent of the other;
9.2.2 Members of each house shall be compensated for their service according to law, paid out of the Treasury of the Union, but such compensation shall not be increased during their terms in office;
9.3 Union Judicial Branch
9.3.1 General jurisdiction.
9.3.1.1 The judicial power of the Union shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior Courts as the Diet may from time to time ordain and establish, but the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction over all lower courts of all parts of the Union.
9.3.1.2 The judicial Power shall extend to all cases, in law, equity, or prerogative writs, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the Union, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under its authority:
9.3.1.2.1 To all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;
9.3.1.2.2 To all cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;
9.3.1.2.3 To cases to which the Union shall be a party;
9.3.1.2.4 To cases between two or more states, dominions, or protectorates;
9.3.1.2.5 Between a state, dominion, or protectorate, and citizens or lawful inhabitants of another State, dominion, or protectorate;
9.3.1.2.6 Between citizens or lawful inhabitants of different states, dominions, or protectorates;
9.3.1.2.7 Between citizens of the same state, dominion, or protectorate claiming lands under grants of different states, dominions, or protectorates;
9.3.1.2.8 Between a state, dominion, or protectorate, or the citizens or lawful inhabitants thereof, and foreign lands, or their citizens or subjects.
9.3.1.2.9 In any trial in which the government is a party, compliance with the Constitution shall be represented, if only an intervenor.
9.3.3 Original jurisdiction. The Union Diet shall assign original or appellate jurisdiction to any Union court, or to the Supreme Court, or to administrative or military tribunal, subject to the caseload capacities of each.
9.3.2 Procedure
9.3.2.1 The judges, or richters, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office;
9.3.2.2 Judicial office shall not be to a particular court or case, but to a pool from which they may be selected and appointed to particular courts or cases.
9.3.2.3 Decisions and opinions of all courts, majority, concurring, or dissenting, shall be signed by each judicial officer participating, and all decisions and opinions shall be published except those that might disclose Union or state secrets. The summary, findings, orders, and commentary shall be clearly separated and labeled as such.
9.4 All officials of all branches and parts
9.4.1 Every official shall swear or affirm that he will preserve, protect, defend, and comply with this Constitution, subject to penalties of perjury of oath, and the constitution of any part thereof to which he may be subject.
9.4.2 The trial of all treasons, felonies, or other crimes carrying a penalty of more than six months incarceration, but not impeachments, shall be tried by jury, regardless of the preferences or plea of the accused.
9.4.3 All crimes shall be tried in the state or dominion in which the crime was committed, but if not in a state, dominion, or district, then in a venue defined by the Diet.
9.4.4 The location where any crime shall be deemed to have been committed shall be where mens rea, actus reus, and concurrence occur, but not necessarily where causation or harm occur.
9.4.5 It shall be a violation of due process to indefinitely detain a person who may be a witness.
9.4.6 The people shall be secure against general and pervasive surveillance in private and public places, whether done by government or private actors, that has a chilling effect on their private and civic activities, without specific public court orders pursuant to acts of the Diet for national security.
9.4.7 Except in an emergency in which recording is infeasible, all legislative, judicial, and administrative proceedings, other than trial jury and inquestry meetings, shall be recorded with current techs, archived, and released as the Diet, for Union proceedings, or a state diet, for state proceedings, or a court of competent jurisdiction, shall direct. Persons present in a legislative of judicial assembly shall not be barred from recording the proceedings except to forbid them from disclosing the members of the jury before the trial is concluded.
9.4.8 The Diet shall have power, on territory under its exclusive jurisdiction, and state diets, on territory under their exclusive jurisdiction, to forbid weapons within penal facilities, courthouses, and government offices or proceedings, provided that they provide for a secure system for checking in weapons on entry, and return on leaving, and guarantee the safety of persons within against all injury they might be able to avoid by having the means to defend themselves or others.
9.4.9 The Diet shall have power, on territory under its exclusive jurisdiction, and state diets, on territory under their exclusive jurisdiction, to forbid unsupervised possession of destructive devices or weapons each discharge of which can produce the death or injury of more than 1000 individuals over a space of 1000 square yards and a time of one hour.
9.4.10 No debt by the Union or any department thereof shall be incurred or held valid that funds consumption by other than military personnel and militia personnel in federal service, or that funds payment of interest on existing debt; and any person may challenge the validity of any debt, whereupon the government shall have 20 days to prove it is authorized by law and not for consumption except as provided above, failing which the debt shall be deemed null and void.
10. Delegated powers
10.1 Executive officials. All executive officials shall have power to appoint subordinate officials, require in writing reports of the actions, receipts, and expenditures, of subordinate officials and their subordinates, under their supervision, and to issue executive orders or regulations governing them.
10.1.1 Leiter.
10.1.1.1 The Leiter shall speak for the Commonwealth to the people, to states, and to foreign lands.
10.1.1.2 The Leiter or his designees shall represent the Commonwealth in the courts, except when an inquestry appoints someone else to represent the Commonwealth.
10.1.1.3 The Leiter shall, at least once a year, report to the Diet and the people the State of the Union, with recommended measures.
10.1.1.4 The Leiter must consent to all bills passed by the Diet within 10 days, and if he should fail to do so within that time, or find it or any part thereof to be unconstitutional, it shall be deemed enacted, but he shall have an additional ten days for each 100,0000 words of the bill.
10.1.1.5 The Leiter may reprieve or pardon any person convicted of a Union crime, except in a case of treason or official impeachment, but such pardon or reprieve does not remove it, or forbid prosecution in a different jurisdiction for the same act.
10.1.1.6 The Leiter shall nominate and with the majority consent of the Bandrat, appoint Cabinet officials, other than the Executor or Protector, judges, ambassadors, and other officials which the Diet has designated must require their consent, reserving the appointment of lesser officials to the heads of departments, or courts.
10.1.1.7 The Leiter shall have the authority to fill vacancies that may occur while the Diet is adjourned, to serve until the Diet reconvenes.
10.1.1.8 The Leiter shall have authority to convene either or both houses of the Diet, at a place which he shall designate, consistent with places previously established by law, and to adjourn those thus convened, but not to suspend or adjourn either of them during their regular sessions.
10.1.1.9 The Leiter shall receive ambassadors and other ministers of foreign lands.
10.1.2 Executor.
10.2.1.1 The Executor must diligently and fairly execute the constitutional laws of the Band, subject to availability of appropriated resources.
10.2.1.1 The Executor shall collect, keep, and disburse all funds, and manage all debts, of the Band.
10.2.1.2 The Executor shall account for all finances to the Diet and to the People at least once a year.
10.2.1.3 The Executor must consent to all bills passed by the Diet on budgetary, financial, revenue, or spending matters, within 10 days, and if he should fail to do so within that time, or find it or any part thereof contrary to wise policy, it shall be deemed enacted, but he shall have ten additional days for each 100,000 words of the bill.
10.2.1.4 The Executor shall administer the affairs of the dominions and protectorates, subject to constitutional acts of their own legislatures.
10.2.1.5 The Executor shall supervise execution of the laws by subordinate departments.
10.1.3 Protector
10.1.3.1 The Protector shall act as Supreme Commander of all armed forces, militia, law enforcement and intelligence agents within the jurisdiction of the Band, with authority to call up militia for general service for the duration of an emergency.
10.1.3.2 The Protector shall negotiate all treaties except those involving the accession of lands into the Band, of alliances, and of war and peace.
10.1.3.3 The Protector shall propose declarations of war and letters of marque and reprisal, with the consent of the Diet, or such part of them as can be convened on short notice, and to engage in hostilities when there is not time to do so.
10.1.3.4 The Protector shall execute the jus gentium for offenses outside the pale of the Band, including:
10.1.3.4.1 Bellum against legitimus hostis, including laws of war and peace;
10.1.3.4.2 Guerra against foreign private actors latrones (brigands) or praedones (pirates), who commit warlike acts against a land or assets, foreign to themselves, or that is without effective governance, and those who aid and abet them, intentionally or negligently, for whom the penalty may include death, with summary due process before a military tribunal.
10.1.3.4.3 The Protector must consent to all bills passed by the Diet on military or defense matters within 10 days, and if he should fail to do so within that time, or find it or any part thereof contrary to wise policy, it shall be deemed enacted.
10.1.3.4.4 The Protector shall commission military and militia officers, with the consent of the Leiter.
10.2 Delegated Powers to the Diet. The Diet shall have power:
10.2.1 Civil powers over money and finance
10.2.1.1 To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, excises, and tariffs on profitable activities and objects that are evidence of profitable activities, uniformly throughout the Union, and fees or rents for the use of public privileges, to pay the debts and fund the operations of the Union, but revenues shall not fall to the advantage or disadvantage on any state, region, or class, and revenues and expenditures shall not be made that have the inferable or intended effect of redistributing the wealth of the People; Taxable objects shall include only profitable activities that are not exercises of constitutional immunities, and shall not include gifts, bequests, equal exchanges, possession, existence, or inaction.
10.2.1.2 To borrow money or other assets on the credit of the Union;
10.2.1.3 To regulate articles of commerce, which are transfers of title and possession of a tangible asset for a valuable consideration, with foreign nations, between the states, within the dominions, and among the lands and domestic nations of the Union, and not within such lands, but shall not include money, energy, information, or services, it shall not include transport without such transfer or interest, nor extraction other than mining, or primary production, manufacturing, possession, use, or disposal, nor shall it include the other activities of those engaged in such transfers; the power to regulate shall be only to restrict attributes or modalities of the article regulated, and shall not include the power to impose criminal penalties;
10.2.1.4 To establish a uniform rule of bankruptcy and reorganization of insolvent individuals, private entities, or municipalities, and of dividing entities with a high risk of becoming dangerously insolvent to the stability of the Union and the world into entities with more manageable risks; but lending for interest shall not be regulated or forbidden provided that any such debt may be discharged in bankruptcy;
10.2.1.5 To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the Standard of weights and measures; to make anything legal tender for the payment of debts only on territory under its exclusive jurisdiction, and not on state territory.
10.2.1.6 To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the Union, but not of privately minted coin that are easily distinguishable from Union coin;
10.2.2 Civil power generally
10.2.2.1 To establish or regulate post offices and post roads, but not to establish monopolies for carrying the mail;
10.2.2.3 To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for periods of seven years the exclusive right to authors and inventors to produce their respective writings and discoveries for sale, and for an additional seven years the exclusive right to receive royalties on such writings and inventions, at a rate to be prescribed by law;
10.2.3.3 To authorize itself or committees of itself to operate as an inquestry for the investigation of public matters, including the issuance of subpoenas, and to enforce its subpoenas and directives to provide information, directly or through a court.
10.2.3 Judicial
10.2.3.1 To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court, which may hear appeals from any other lower court;
10.2.3.2 To define and punish contumacy; No judge shall have power to punish contumacy by fine, imprisonment, or other penalty, other than by incarceration for a period not to exceed ten days per court session, without conviction by a jury in a trial in which another judge shall preside.
10.2.3.3 To define and punish perjury of oath and other high crimes and misdemeanors;
10.2.3.4 To define and punish fraud against the Union;
10..2.4 Defense
10.2.4.1 To establish a uniform rule of naturalization of foreign nationals or foreign born offspring of Union nationals;
10.2.4.2 To define and punish felonies committed on the high Seas, praedones (piracies) and and other offenses against the jus gentium, including entry into the Union without permission, or the law of nations, and to make rules for guerra against latrones;
10.2.4.3 To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal to private parties or to the Protector, and make rules concerning captures on land, water, and elsewhere. A declaration of war shall specify the state or organized body that is the enemy, the casus belli or casus foederis requiring its issuance, the commencement date, and the terms for its conclusion. The identification of the enemy shall be sufficiently precise to allow persons of common understanding to recognize them, and not be left to executive officials to define the boundaries of what is included;
10.2.4.4 To recruit military volunteers and support and maintain armed forces, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;
10.2.4.5 To make rules for the government and regulation of the armed forces, or for protection of the assets or territory of the Union;
10.2.4.6 To provide for calling forth the militia for the duration of emergencies to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections, repel invasions, and respond to disasters;
10.2.4.7 To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the Union, reserving to the states respectively, the election of officers by county or ward units, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Diet, but should the state fail to do so, militia units may convene themselves and elect their own officers;
10.2.4.8 To regulate or prohibit release unto the environment of harmful substances;
12.2.4.9 Treason. Treason shall consist of warlike acts, or the aiding or abetting of such acts, intentionally or negligently, by citizens or legal residents against the land or assets of their nation or domicile, proved by the testimony of two independent witnesses to the same overt acts. It does not include ordinary felonies for gain or with malice, nor shall conviction thereof bring corruption of blood or forfeiture within the lifetime of the accused. Treason may be punishable by exile or death.
12.2.4.10 To punish infringement of any of the immunities in the Bill of Immunities.
12.2.4.11 To punish interference with the lawful exercise of duties of a Union agent.
10.2.5 Union enclaves and dominions.
10.2.5.1 To exercise exclusive legislation with powers common to most states, over such Capital dominion as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of the Diet, become the seat of the government of the Union;
10.2.5.2 To exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the diet of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection and use of needful public buildings, or facilities, but all such cessions shall be defined by metes and bounds;
10.2.5.3 The total area of all such cessions from a state, or retained parcels from admission of a state, shall not exceed five percent of the total area of the state; and
10.2.5.4 Each such ceded or retained parcel shall have its boundaries clearly marked, lacking which the parcel shall revert to the state or dominion, but the inhabitants of the parcel shall remain inhabitants of the state for all electoral and militia purposes;
10.2.5.5 To exercise like authority over coastal waters between the high tide line and a line 30 kiloyards out from that line;
10.2.5.6 To exercise like authority over airspace above 2 kiloyards above terrain features of Union territory;
10.2.5.7 To exercise like authority over minerals 250 yards or more beneath the land surface;
10.2.5.8 The Diet shall, perhaps with a treaty with other nations collectively producing most of the world’s valuable assets, exercise power to do the following for each year evenly divisible by seven, for a shmita period at least three and not more than nine months:
10.2.5.8.1 Cancel all debts, securities, fiat currencies, and derivatives thereof;
10.2.5.8.2 Liquidate or break up all for-profit corporate entities and activities into organizations comprised of not more than 3000 individuals and investors;
10.2.5.8.3 Regulate emergent behavior that might act in concert like a corporate entity;
10.2.5.8.4 Suspend all extraction, including mining planting, harvesting, and fishing, all manufacturing, and all transport beyond 100 kiloyards of durable goods, other than those essential for defense, justice and law enforcement, water, power, or medical services;
10.2.5.8.5 Promote storage systems to enable persons to endure the shmita period;
10.2.5.8.6 Forbid the importation of goods subject to the shmita during the shmita period;
10.2.5.8.7 Call out militia to enforce the shmita.

10.2.6 To make any laws which shall be absolutely necessary and proper, or incidental, for making a reasonable effort to carry into execution the foregoing powers, but not necessarily to get a desired result, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the Union, or in any department or officer thereof.
10.2.7 To punish infringements of immunities in the Bill of Immunities;
10.3 Restrictions on the delegated powers of the Diet. The Diet or executive officers shall not:
10.3.1 Impose any tax or duty on any dominion, not represented in the Diet, to go to the Union Treasury, but only on behalf of that dominion, to go to its treasury, until it can constitute its own legislature;
10.3.2 Suspend or impede the prerogative writs of habeas corpus, prohibito, mandamus, procedendo, scire facias, quo warranto, error, or certiorari, or the filing and prosecution thereof directly by any individual, in the name of the people, except during periods of emergency when the courts are not open; and such writs shall not be treated as petitions or motions for injunction, but as demands, requiring a response;
10.3.3 Pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto act, or their functional equivalents, imposing criminal penalties on a group that has not had individual due process for an act committed before the act of the Diet went into effect, or that increases a penalty after sentence is imposed;
10.3.4 Establish or continue any title of nobility or its functional equivalent, granting privileges or immunities on any person except as his office may require it to perform his duties, nor permit any person holding a position of trust in the Union to accept any such title, estates, revenues, or other items of value, from any foreign state; but any official immunity may be removed by indictment of an inquestry
10.3.5 Impose any direct tax or rent on any object which may be evidence of profitable activity, except in proportion to the population of the state taken from the most recent census;
10.3.6 Impose any tax or duty on articles exported from any state, or on articles or services useful for militia;
10.3.7 Give preference in regulation of commerce for revenues to one state or its ports or roads over that of another;
10.3.8 Draw any money from the Treasury, or create any debts or obligations, except those authorized by appropriations of the Diet, nor shall any expenditure or or incurrence of debt not be reported to the public at least once a year;
10.3.9 Make anything except gold or silver coin or units of energy legal tender for the payment of debts within any state;
10.3.10 Take any real property through eminent domain, or any chattel, without just compensation and through due process of law, and only for a legitimate public use, from any dominion, or from any state without the consent of the state diet; but any property thus taken which is not put to public use within ten years shall be returned to its original owner together with fair market rent for its use, and any regulatory or other activity which diminishes the value of the property by more than ten percent shall be considered a taking under this clause;
10.3.11 All powers delegated in this Constitution are constrained to be exercised only for a proper, or reasonable, rational, and legitimate, public purpose, as a fiduciary trust for the general benefit of all the people and not for the special benefit of any part of them, partially but not completely stated in the Preamble. No power is plenary or without limits, and no power may be extended to accomplish a purpose without amendment.
10.3.12 Devotion to the Constitution as originally meant and understood may be an established civil religion in the Union and in any subdivision thereof.
10.3.13 The Diet may not require any state or local official, or private person, of the Union, to expend any resources without providing such resources, or make the provision of resources conditional on performing actions the Diet does not have the power to command, except for militia organization, training, and operations, or for specific performance on a voluntary contract.
10.4 Immunities of officials and government, and claims
10.4.1 Officials shall have official immunity from execution of money judgments for injuries caused by acts lawfully done by an official or in the performance of his lawful duties; however
10.4.2 Officials shall not have immunity from suit; and
10.4.3 Officials shall not have immunity against money judgments for injuries caused by acts done unlawfully by him or not in the performance of his lawful duties; however,
10.4.4 If an injurious act was done by an official lawfully or in the performance of his lawful duties, the injured party may sue and receive judgment for such injury against the government or agency employing him, under the doctrine of respondeat superior; but the plaintiff may not execute such judgment against assets of the government or agency chosen by him, but shall be paid only from a fund appropriated for the payment of such claims, upon application therefor, provided that funds are available; and
10.4.5 Sufficient funds shall be appropriated for the payment of such claims, before any other funds are appropriated.
10.4.6 Collection of such claims shall not be impeded or made excessively expensive, and the government or agency shall be liable for reasonable costs and delays of collection.
10.4.7 If an official shall not have sufficient assets to pay a judgment against him, his government or agency shall be liable for the deficit; and
10.4.8 If the injury consists of the death or physical impairment of an innocent person, the official may be criminally prosecuted by the injured party or his representative for a penalty that may include death.
10.4.9 Members of the Diet shall be privileged from arrest or detention during sessions of his house, or while traveling to such sessions, except for treason, bribery, or breach of the peace; or civil or criminal prosecution for any speech or debate, for votes cast, while his house is in session.
10.4.10 No official shall be subject to a religious test to hold office or perform his duties.
11. States, dominions, and protectorates.
11.1 A state or land shall be a full member of the Union, on the same terms as for other states, and shall be represented in both houses or camera of the Diet, and shall participate in the selection of executive officials.
11.2 A state or protectorate shall be sovereign over its land, with the exclusive power of eminent domain.
11.3 A dominion shall not be sovereign over its land, but sovereignty shall vest in the Union until it be admitted as a state or protectorate.
11.4 Restrictions on the powers of states, dominions, and protectorates. No state, dominion, or protectorate, or any subdivision thereof, shall:
11.4.1 Enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation with a foreign nation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin or units of energy a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or bill impairing the obligation or terms of contracts, or grant any title of nobility or its functional equivalent;
11.4.2 Without the consent of the Diet, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection laws; and the net yield of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the Union; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Diet;
11.4.3 Impose any restrictive regulation, tax, fee, or duty or on articles or services useful for militia.
11.4.4 Without the consent of the Diet, lay any duty of tonnage, keep regular armed forces, other than militia, in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state without consent of the Diet, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
11.4.5 Take any real property through eminent domain, or any chattel, without just compensation and through due process of law, and only for a legitimate public use, but any property thus taken which is not put to public use within ten years shall be returned to its original owner together with fair market rent for its use, and any regulatory or other activity which diminishes the value of the property by more than ten percent shall be considered a taking under this clause.
11.4.6 Shall not impair the obligations of contracts, license contracts, or regulate their terms, although the courts may not enforce some contracts.
11.4.7 There shall be no occupational licensing, formal or informal, national, state, or local, especially of lawyers by lawyers or judges.
11.4.8 Every bill enacted by a diet shall expire two years after enactment, unless re-enacted, or unless it is constitutionally mandated.
11.4.9 Infringe on any of the immunities in the Bill of Immunities;
11.5 Admission of states and protectorates. A state or protectorate may be admitted into that role by application, selection of a government, and submission of a constitution for approval by the Diet. State constitutions shall be modeled on that of the Union, but adapted to the needs of the state. Before admission they may have been a dominions or a foreign land. No state or protectorate shall be admitted from within a state or dominion, by uniting parts of dominions or states, without consent of the legislature of the state or dominion and of the Diet. A protectorate must continue for ten years as a protectorate before it is admitted as a state, except for lands in the British Isles.
11.5.1 The Union shall not retain more than ten percent of the area of a state, for natural, historical, or scenic reserves, or for military installations, upon admission of a state, which reserves shall not be subject to taxation by the state.
11.5.2 The Diet shall have power to legislate for a Capital dominion as though it were a state and the Diet were its government.
11.5.3 Dominion status is for lands with few indigenous inhabitants, not yet fully settled by Union citizens, which indigenes have not yet consented to the Constitution of the Union or to its laws. Some such may continue as subdominions or domestic nations.
11.5.4 Protectorate status is for lands already inhabited with peoples organized with their own government and laws, who may need some time to reconcile those laws to those of the Union before being admitted as a state. Their proposed constitution need not be as closely modeled on that of the Union.
11.5.5 The Union shall guarantee to each state or protectorate compliance with its own constitution.
11.6 Secession. A state or protectorate may secede from the union after it has been admitted at least 20 years, with mutual accommodation between that state or protectorate and the Union for the lands and properties of each, by consent of the diets of both the Union and the state or protectorate.
12. Treaties and alliances.
12.1 Commercial, territorial, diplomatic, extradition, or other such treaties shall be negotiated by the Leiter, and shall go into effect with consent of two-thirds of both houses of the Diet.
12.2 Supporting mutual defense agreements, such as status of forces agreements, shall be negotiated by the Protector, and shall go into effect with consent of a majority of both houses of the Diet.
12.3 No treaty shall have the effect of creating or extending any delegated powers of the Diet or any department of government, or of any state constitution.
12.4 The Protector may engage in hostilities for 90 days without a declaration of war in a case of casus bellum or casus foederis, or if there is an imminent danger that will not admit of delay.
12.5 The Protector is not bound to defend allies that have provoked hostilities.
12.6 If the Union is in a mutual defense alliance in which some member states are not doing their fair share of the duties of mutual defense, the Protector may assess and collect duties or fines from the international commerce, assets, or operations of delinquent members, and pay such revenues to a fund to pay for mutual defense efforts, or to a alliance defense legion, bearing letters of marque and reprisal, organized to fulfill the mutual defense and other duties of members o the alliance.
13. Jus gentium. Jus gentium shall be the main law in recently liberated or occupied lands until constitutional governments can be established there. It shall include any of the following acts, without the consent of the Diet, by declaration of war, mutual defense treaty, or through letters of marque and reprisal:
13.1 Latrocinium (piracy), including warlike acts against the assets of a land not that of the attackers;
13.2 Invasion or unlawful entry into the territory of a foreign land;
13.3 Attacks on emissaries, ambassadors, or on Union or Alliance military forces;
13.4 Subversion of the government of a foreign land;
13.1 Enslavement or its equivalent shall be an offense of piracy, punishable by death.
13.2 Violent oppression of groups within a land, other than of supporters of the previous regime, shall be an offense, punishable by death;
13.3 Such other extraterritorial violent acts as may be defined by the Diet.
14. Supremacy, comity, and assumption of debts.
14.1 This Constitution of government, and laws pursuant thereto, shall be the supreme law of the the Union, subject only to the constitutions of nature, the society, and the land, of its states, dominions, and protectorates, superseding the constitutions, treaties (other than with the Union), and laws of such parts, and the courts of every part shall be bound thereby.
14.2 The courts of all parts of the Union shall give full faith and credit to the official acts and judicial proceedings of other parts, but the Union Diet may prescribe the forms of proof and the effect thereof.
14.3 The Union assumes all outstanding contracts debts of newly admitted states and dominions not retained by them;
14.4 The citizens or each state or dominion shall enjoy the privileges or immunities common to other states or dominions.
14.5 A Person charged in any state or dominion with treason, felony, piracy, or other crime, who shall flee from justice in that jurisdiction, and be found in another state or dominion, shall on demand of the executive authority of the state or dominion from which he fled, be extradited, delivered up, and removed to the state or dominion having jurisdiction of the Crime, at its expense.
15. Construction.
15.1 Any claim of authority or immunity must be presumed not to be valid unless proved.
15.2 The writ of quo warranto may be filed by any person to demand proof of authority, which writ must be heard before of all other writs or cases, although once proved another writ of quo warranto on the same claim need not be heard by the same court for 30 days without new evidence.
15.3 Acts of any diet shall be presumed to be unconstitutional until proved to be constitutional.
15.4 Nothing in this Constitution shall be construed to prejudice any preceding claims by or upon the Union or any state.
15.5 Court decisions shall not be deemed binding in any other case, but at most persuasive.
15.6 Constitutional text shall be construed only on the basis of historical meaning for first, the ratifiers, second the framers.
15.6 No person shall be denied standing for at least declaratory relief even if he has not incurred or does not expect particular injury.
15.7 The powers to tax, spend, promote, regulate, and prohibit (or punish), shall each be construed as distinct, with none derivable from any of the others, and none shall be exercised as a way to avoid the lack of a power to do one of the others.
15.8 No power applicable to an object, or any necessary and proper power derived from it, shall be extended to other objects with which it may be aggregated or causally connected, except to separate the applicable objects from the others.
16. Amendment
16.1 Amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in any of the following ways:
16.1.1 By a concurrent resolution of the Union Diet;
16.1.2 By identical proposals from the diets of two-thirds of the States;
16.1.3 By a convention called by the diets of one-third of the states, with the appointment by those diets of a convention commission to manage it;
16.2 Amendments to this Constitution may be ratified in any of the following ways:
16.2.1 By concurrent resolutions of the diets of three-fourths of the states;
16.2.2 By conventions called by the diets of three-fourths of the states;
16.2.3 By conventions in three-fourths of the states called by the Union Diet.
16.3 No State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its two equal votes in the Union Bandrat, or at least one vote in the Union Bandtag.
16.4 An amendment shall be appended to this Constitution, and shall be deemed part of it for all purposes; courts are to resolve conflicts between an amendment and preceding parts of the Constitution in favor of the last ratified.
16.5 To be deemed ratified, the results of votes of the diet or convention in each state shall be reviewed and verified by a vote of at least 18 of a randomly selected inquestry of 23 from citizens of that state who are not dependent on public funds for their support; and the reports of all such votes and inquestries shall be reviewed and verified by a vote of at least 18 of a randomly selected inquestry of 23 from citizens of the Union who are not dependent on public funds for their support.
17. Ratification
18.1 This Constitution shall go into effect if ratified by the diets, ratifying conventions, or referenda, of four of the five lands in the British Isles, one of which must be England.
18.2 This Constitution shall go into effect for any additional lands that accede to it, with the consent of the Union Diet.
18. Postamble. Proposed in convention as described below.

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